1. Stanzas, paragraphs, chapters, may be out of order; rearrange
them for clarity and meaning, and, to match the logical flow of
the action and events
2. Change a common or overused word: make the strange word
familiar and the familiar word uncommon
3. Broken sentences, or fragments may mean insufficient
information is given; be more specific or give more detailed
4. Refer to the familiar with new images; reinvent stale statements
5. Maintain the flow of the line or frame of thought
6. Grammar must be correct: spelling, punctuation, capitals,
quotations, slashes, sequence dots, colon and semicolon
7. Clarity for: message, meaning, sense and logical sequence
8. Voice: who is speaking is not clear, too many voices, switching
point of view, personification, and false voice are some methods
that may cause confusion
9. Anonymity should be avoided; experience is specific and
10. Unintentional humour detracts and may destroy the mood
11. Saying too much of not enough says too little of not much
12. Find the best word-fit; don't settle for 'almost'
13. Balance and rhythm to be respected; may be broken
intentionally, strategically
14. To be a slave to format limits range of artistry
15. Ineffective line breaks in poetry, or inappropriate pauses in
writing also breaks with reader's attention
16. Stanzas or sentences running on or broken at wrong places
will disrupt interest
17. Cliches should be avoided for punch line endings
18. Drivel lacks substance, 'trim the fat'; filler words also known
as 'verbiage' dilute meaning and message
19. Refer the action to a specific subject to avoid confusing
20. Accusatory words should be reserved for specific effects
21. Rework several lines to tighten a garbled message; be concise
and clear with fewer words
22. Seek literary criticism from others e.g., writers' workshops